To the public national and international opinion
QUESTIONING UPM GREENWASHING CAMPAIGN
The undersigned entities and professionals denounce the fraudulent campaign of the Finnish multinational UPM Kymmene, whose main business is the production of cellulose in Uruguay from monoculture plantations of eucalyptus, in which it presents itself as a leading global corporation in the fight against climate change, the defense of biodiversity and the sustainable water management.
Diverse research - presented below briefly and more in detail in the annex attached to this our letter - show that it is false to claim like the UPM does that monoculture tree plantations that replace natural grasslands would favor and expand biodiversity or help mitigate climate change and prevent deforestation or would together with the cellulose plants contribute to sustainable water management.
Recently, UPM announced its incorporation into the "Business Ambition for 1.5 ° C" initiative launched by the United Nations Global Compact. UPM says it will strive to mitigate climate change and create innovative products, committing to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65% and to practice sustainable forestry.
At the same time, UPM noted that it is one of the six leading companies worldwide for its actions to mitigate climate risk, prevent deforestation and improve water management. UPM appeared in 2019 in the Triple A List of CDP, an entity financed by companies and governments that gives companies sustainability scores to guide investors. These scores are based on self-reporting and CDP does not evaluate the actual performance of the companies on sustainability issues.
In this way, UPM is developing a new campaign to convince investors, governments and populations of the Global South of the goodness of its projects.
The change of land use in the grasslands characteristic of South America - the Pampa Biome - is associated with the worldwide expansion of monoculture plantations with fast-growing exotic species for cellulose production with greater profitability for companies, but with very high cost for the communities that suffer
Testimonies of the negative social and environmental impacts of tree monocultures have been documented for more than 20 years by the World Rainforest Movement (https://wrm.org.uy/browse-by-subject/tree-plantations/).
In addition to the displacement of rural populations, these plantations affect local productions (food sovereignty), soil (acidification and loss of organic matter and minerals, among others) and water (scarcity in areas adjacent to plantations and pollution due to the use of pesticides).
For more than 15 years, scientists from universities in Argentina, Brazil, the United States, the United Kingdom and Uruguay, among other countries, have carried out a series of investigations on the impacts of tree monocultures and cellulose production that demonstrate the falsehood of the UPM propaganda.
We present a list of scientific research confirming the above and attach a dossier with the summary of its results:
A. Monocultures of eucalyptus for cellulose production are worse carbon sinks than grasslands originating in South America. In addition, most of the carbon captured by these trees is released by harvesting them and transforming them into cellulose. As part of its process, biomass is burned and other gases are released into the atmosphere, with the consequent effects on the climate.
A1. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils. Carrasco-Letelier, L., Eguren, G., Castiñeira, C., Parra, O., & Panario, D. (2003).
A2. Soil organic carbon vs. bulk density following temperate grassland afforestation. Céspedes-Payret, C., Bazzoni, B., Gutiérrez, O., & Panario, D. (2017). Environmental Processes, 4(1), 75–92.
B. Monoculture plantations of trees irreversibly extract nutrients and minerals from this original ecosystem that took thousands of years to settle. Among its rows of miles of cloned trees, species of exotic fauna proliferate, such as wild boar, which are a plague for local livestock and agriculture.
B1. Patterns and mechanisms of soil acidification in the conversion of grasslands to forests. Jobbágy, E. G., & Jackson, R. B. (2003). Biogeochemistry, 64(2), 205-229.
B2. The irruption of new agro-industrial technologies in Uruguay and their environmental impacts on soil, water supply and biodiversity: a review. Céspedes-Payret, C., Piñeiro, G., Achkar, M., Gutiérrez, O., &
Panario, D. (2009). International Journal of Environment and Health, 3(2), 175-197.
B3. Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications. Céspedes-Payret, C., Piñeiro, G., Gutiérrez, O., & Panario, D. (2012). Science of the Total Environment, 438, 549-557.
B4. The political economy of global tree plantation expansion: a review, Markus Kröger, The Journal of Peasant Studies (2014) https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03066150.2014.890596
B5. Afforestation of savannas: an impending ecological disaster. Fernandes, G. W., Coelho, M. S., Machado, R. B., Ferreira, M. E., Aguiar, L. M. de S., Dirzo, R., Scariot, A., Lopes, C. R. (2016). Natureza & Conservação, 14(2), 146-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.08.002
C. Monocultures of eucalyptus and associated cellulose plants seriously reduce and contaminate the main sources of water in the region.
C1. Hydrological consequences of Eucalyptus afforestation in the Argentine Pampas. Engel, V., Jobbágy, E. G., Stieglitz, M., Williams, M., & Jackson, R. B. (2005). Water Resources Research, 41(10), W10409.
C2. Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy. Farley, K. A., Jobbágy, E. G., & Jackson, R. B. (2005). Global Change Biology, 11(10), 1565-1576.
C3. Trading water for carbon with biological carbon sequestration. Jackson, R. B., Jobbágy, E. G., Avissar, R., Roy, S. B., Barrett, D. J., Cook, C. W., Farley, K.A., le Maitre, D.C., Mc Carl, B.A., Murray, B. C. (2005). Science, 310(5756), 1944-1947. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1119282
C4. Land-use change and water losses: the case of grassland afforestation across a soil textural gradient in central Argentina. Nosetto, M. D., Jobbágy, E. G., & Paruelo, J. M. (2005). Global Change Biology, 11(7), 1101-1117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00975.x
C5. Las forestaciones rioplatenses y el agua. Jobbágy, E. G., Nosetto, M. D., Paruelo, J. M., & Piñeiro, G. (2006). Ciencia hoy, 17(95), 12-21.
C6. Síntesis de los efectos ambientales de las plantas de celulosa y del modelo forestal en Uruguay. Panario, D., Mazzeo, N., Eguren, G., Rodríguez, C., Altesor, A., Cayssials, R., & Achkar, M. (2006).
C7. Stream acidification and base cation losses with grassland afforestation. Farley, K. A., Piñeiro, G., Palmer, S. M., Jobbágy, E. G., & Jackson, R. B. (2008). Water Resources Research, 44(7), W00A03.
D. The installation of pulp agribusiness in the Southern Cone of America generates conflicting social and political transformations in the region.
D1. Ecosystem services and tree plantations in Uruguay: A reply to Vihervaara et al. Paruelo, J. M. (2012). Forest Policy and Economics, 22, 85-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2012.04.005
D2. In the shadows of social licence to operate: Untold investment grievances in Latin America, Maria Ehrnström-Fuentes and Markus Kröger, Journal of Cleaner Production (2016).
D3. Birthing extractivism: The role of the state in forestry politics and development in Uruguay, Maria Ehrnström-Fuentes and MarkusKröger, Journal of Rural Studies (2017).
D4. Confronting extractivism – the role of local struggles in the (un)making of place, Maria Ehrnström-Fuentes, Emerald Insight (2019). https://www.emerald.com/insight/search?q=confronting+extractivism&showAll=true
For all the above, monocultures of exotic trees for the production of cellulose in substitution of natural grasslands are not a model of sustainable development as the agroforestry industry maintains. On the contrary, this system leads to irreversible degradation of soils and waters and initiates desertification processes as they are already being registered in Brazil.
The international sustainability rankings prepared by entities such as CDP are used by UPM to deploy propaganda actions that justify its expansion in the Global South outsourcing pollution and greenhouse emissions to the poorest regions of the world. The promises of UPM are nothing more than a 'greenwashing' to improve the image of the company in the local and worldwide spheres.
We urge international organizations, governments and citizens to vehemently reject the fraudulent UPM campaign.
Coordinación Nacional contra UPM
Comisión Nacional de Defensa del Agua y la Vida
Movimiento por un Uruguay Sustentable (MOVUS)
No al tren de UPM
Asamblea por el Agua de Santa Lucía
Asociación Ambientalista de Salto
Movimiento por la Tierra
Mesa Nacional de Colonos
Colectivo Ecofeminista Dafnias
REDES/Amigos de la Tierra Uruguay
Maldonado por la Tierra y el Agua
Asociación Uruguaya de Guardaparques
Fridays for Future Uruguay
Consejo de la Nación Charrúa (CONACHA)
Comisión Rivera por la vida sustentable y el agua
RAPAL UruguayAsociación de Trabajadores Civiles de los Diques del Estado (ATCDE)
Plenario intersindical social María Romana - La Paloma, Rocha
Diario barrial La Bicicleta
Colectivo Ñangapiré, San Gregorio de Polanco
Ecofeminismo Rio Negro
Partidos por el Medio, San Gregorio de Polanco
Movimiento de Protección Ambiental de Sarandí del Yí
Vivero Atrapasueños, San Gregorio de Polanco
Agrupación Motoquera Cicatriz Uruguay
Taller del arte-insano, San Gregorio de Polanco
Periódico La Fragua
Clan Choñik (Indígenas Charrúas)
Grupo Ecológico Naturista Sanducero / GENSA de Paysandú
Centro de Promoción y Defensa de Derechos Humanos
Friends of the Landless, Finland
Friends of the Earth Finland
New Wind Association
Emmaus Aurinkotehdas ry
Endorsements by International organizations
World Rainforest Movement (WRM)
Acción Ecológica, Ecuador
Friends of the Earth Argentina
Guardianes del Iberá, Argentina
Global Justice Ecology Project
GE Free NZ in Food and Environment, New Zeland
RECOMA – Latin American Network against Monoculture Tree Plantations
Organización BIOS, Argentina
Unidad de Vinculación Ecologista - Fundación La Hendija, Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina
Asociación Argentina de Abogados Ambientalistas (AAdeAA)
Otros Mundos Chiapas/Friends of the Earth México
OLCA - Observatorio Latinoamericano de Conflictos Ambientales, Chile
Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO)
The Campaign to Stop GE Trees, International
NGO Buenos Aires Sostenible, Argentina
Professionals and social referents
Daniel Panario, Doctor in Environmental Technology and Water management, Uruguay
Ofelia Gutiérrez, Doctor in Environmental Sciencies, Technology and Water Management,
Gustavo Melazzi, Doctor in Economy Specialized in Planning, Uruguay
Aelita Moreira Viñas, Agronomist, Uruguay
Ignacio Stolkin, Emeritus Professor Doctor in Chemical Engineer, Uruguay
Astrid Sanchez, Architect Specialist in Strategic Environmental Evaluation, Uruguay
Graciela Piñeiro Martínez, Doctor in Biological Sciencies, Uruguay
Ricardo Viscardi, Doctor in Philosophy, Uruguay
Marisa Pérez, Agronomist, Uruguay
Alejandro Cairús, Teacher of Design, UruguayClaudia Piccini, Doctor Researcher in Biological Sciencies, Uruguay
Liliana Terradas, Doctor in Medicine, Uruguay
Daniel Hernández Pérez, Master in Ecological Sciencies, Uruguay
Isabel Sans, Agronomist, Uruguay
Daniel García Fernández, Doctor in Biological Sciencies, Uruguay
Marcelo Loureiro, Doctor en Biological Sciencies, Uruguay
Alicia Sans, Doctor in Medicine, Uruguay
Carlos Anido, Engineer in Mines, Uruguay
Lucía Delbene, Graduate in Biological Sciencies and Magister in Geo-sciencies, Uruguay
Isabel Viana, Architect, Uruguay
William Yohai, Doctor in Medicine, Uruguay
Victor Bacchetta, Journalist, Uruguay
Raul Viñas, Meteorologist, Uruguay
Laura Rodríguez-Graña, Doctor in Oceanography, Uruguay
Marta Chiappe, Agronomist, Doctor in Philosophy, Uruguay
Fabiana Campos, Doctor in Odontology, Uruguay
Juan Carlos Gómez Castro, Lawyer, Uruguay
Ana Maria Barreiro, Lawyer, Uruguay
Mercedes Villar Drever, Architect, Posgraduate in Ecological Engineer, HeriotWatt, Edinburgh, Uruguay
Eduardo Bauzá, Agroecological producer, Uruguay
Patricia Iribarne, Human Biologist and Magister in Environmental Science, Uruguay
Virginia Cardozo, Family and Community Doctor, Uruguay
Betty Francia, Anthropologist and agroecological producer, Uruguay
Brenda Bogliaccini, social militant of Montevideo West side, Uruguay
Diane Denoir, Singer and ecologist, Uruguay
Andrés Olivetti, Professor, Uruguay
Laura Cafaro, Social worker and alternate representative to the Uruguayan Parliament, Uruguay
Gastón Carro, Forestry agronomist, Uruguay
Mariana Achugar, PhD. Researcher and social activist, Uruguay
Miguel Scapusio, Psychologist and human rights activist, Uruguay
Valeria España, Lawyer in human rights, Uruguay
Laura Rodríguez, Veterinary, Uruguay
Amparo Fernández, Linguist and social activist, Uruguay
Irene Gonçalvez , City Council member of Maldonado, Uruguay
Juan Ángel Urruzola, Photographer, Uruguay
Álvaro Jaume, producer and social activist, Uruguay
Adriana Goñi, Anthropologist, Uruguay
Laura Outeda, Professor and social activist, Uruguay
Gabriel Delacoste, Political Scientist, Uruguay
Hugo Cabieses Cubas, Ex Viceminister on Strategic Development of Natural Resources, Perú
Silvana Buján, Bachelor of Communication Sciences, Argentina
Pablo Bergel, Sociologist, ex member of the Parliament, President of the Climate Change Commission of
Buenos Aires, Argentina
María Ehrnström-Fuentes, Doctor of Science (Economics and Business Administration), Hanken School of
Roberto Ochandio, Geographer, Argentina
Jorge Oscar Daneri, Lawyer, Argentina
Enrique Viale, Lawyer, Argentina
Manuel Ludueña, Professor on Urban Sustainable in the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina